Birth Defects: Abnormalities encountered after Delivery

Below are birth defects after delivery that is experienced by moms and fetus. Birth defects differ from one another such as placenta accreta, cervical laceration and many more. Let’s discuss more below.

1) Placenta Accreta

birth defects

After the newborn is delivered, the placenta should leave the body within 30 minutes. If it does not and remains attached to the wall of the uterus, doctors can enter the uterus to manually remove the placenta. If the placenta remains following this procedure, the uterus will have to be surgically removed.

2) Cervical Laceration

This refers to when the uterine artery and the cervix are lacerated during the delivery, causing bleeding. Cervical laceration occurs due to the sudden expansion of the cervix and the fetus leaving the body in an improper position. If bleeding cannot be stymied through the vagina, a cesarean section will be required.

3) Bleeding from Slack Uterus

After childbirth, the uterus should contract rapidly. However, if the uterus cannot contract fully, severe bleeding may occur. As this is an extremely dangerous circumstance for the mother to be in, hysterotonics should be administered or the necessary precautions taken before this emergency can be averted. The causes of slack uterus include being pregnant with an oversized fetus, twins, polyhydramios, or any of the other phenomena that over-expand the uterus.

Umbilical Cord Abnormalities

4) Umbilical Tangling

Umbilical tangling occurs when the umbilical cord, which connects mother and child, becomes impaired. The umbilical cord is usually around 50cm in length. An umbilical cord longer than 50cm is considered to be abnormally long, and one shorter than this length is considered abnormally short. Abnormal length, whether too long or too short, has the potential to cause umbilical tangling.

An abnormally long umbilical cord can wrap around the fetus' extremities. As the fetus moves around in its mother's tummy, it becomes wrapped up ever tighter, obstructing the circulation of blood. In severe cases, hypoxemia may occur, which is fatal to the fetus.

It is common for the fetus to become wrapped in its mother's umbilical cord as it moves around. No obstruction should occur unless the case is severe. There are almost no cases of abnormally short umbilical cords wrapping around the body or neck. However, during childbirth, there are some abnormalities that can occur when the fetus exits the birth canal. If the umbilical cord is wrapped tight around the fetus, this may cause arrhythmia in the fetus' heart.

5) Umbilical Prolapse

This is most likely to occur in cases of fetal malposition. If the umbilical cord exits the body first after the water breaks, it will become wedged between the fetus and its mother, inhibiting blood flow. This is one cause of fetal mortality.

6) Abnormal Umbilical Cord Attachment

The umbilical cord normally attaches to the placenta. If the umbilical cord attaches to the amniotic membrane instead of the placenta, this is called abnormal umbilical cord attachment. Although this will not interfere with the fetus' development, when the water breaks during delivery, the vein located on the amniotic membrane will rupture and cause sudden death of the fetus.

Tip: The Umbilical Cord

The 50cm umbilical cord is linked to two arteries and one vein, three blood vessels altogether. The umbilical cord is made of a rubbery structure and is very elastic. Because of these characteristics, no safety hazard is posed to the fetus if it becomes wrapped up in the cord while in the womb.

A Little Information: Shock during Labor

If a woman in labor experiences shock, measures should be taken immediately to ameliorate her symptoms. Precautions should also be taken to eliminate any dangerous symptoms. That is why it is important for pregnant women to keep themselves healthy throughout the course of their pregnancies.

· In cases of severe bleeding, hemorrhagic shock may occur. If measures are not taken immediately, including a blood transfusion, there is a high risk of fetal brain damage or even death.

· Swelling caused by preeclampsia.

· If the placenta is taking too long to leave the body and shocked is caused by the compression techniques used to eject the placenta.

· Sudden increase in abdominal pressure resulting from polyhydramnios.

Whatever the birth defects encountered, a pregnant woman should receive immediate attention from doctors.

Sandra Henderson
 

Editor-in-chief at Babiology and a proud mother of four passionate about sharing pregnancy and baby growth knowledges

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